Stone of Turkey, Turkey

Stones of Turkey

Episode 1: Different forms of commercial rocks found in Turkey


Granite is a natural stone which shares similarities with diabase, serpentine, basalt, crystalline and schist as all of these stones are formed based on magma. The components of these rock types have minerals such as silicates and other opaque  minerals, which makes the Granite blocks quite difficult to cut, shape and polish. That is  why they are much more resistant compared to other types of stone.

Granite  is highly demanded not only in the developed countries but also in the  local market of Turkey.  The characteristics of granite, which  are its beautiful appearance, sturdiness over time, durability even in  external use and high resistance to erosion make it attractive for both  indoor and outdoor decorations. 

The major granite types in Turkey are:

Ayvalik  Granite

It is easy to take in the form of blocks and plates. While  cutting sides and corners is easier, the process of shaping and  polishing is normal but cutting it can be slow. It is appropriate for  indoors and outdoors and generally used for plating, coating and  decoration.

Thracian Granite

Its quality and properties are just the same as Ayvalik granite. It  is also easy to take in the form of blocks and plates.  Cutting  sides and corners is easier, the process of shaping and  polishing is normal but cutting it can be slow. It is appropriate for  indoors and outdoors and generally used for plating, coating and  decoration.

Granite Sources in Turkey

Granite  reserves are in Ordu, Rize, Trabzon, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Bolu, Izmit,  Canakkale and Izmir. The sources of other magma based stones such as  diabase, serpentine, basalt, crystalline schist and gyans in Turkey are  Kapidag in Balikesir, Armutlu in Bursa, Sivrihisar in Eskisehir,  Gumushane, Zambakkaya (especially diabase) in Gemlik and  Kurselik-Abbaslik (especially serpentine) in Bilecik.


Travertine  is the outcome of the separation of carbon dioxide from calcium carbonate. The colours of travertine are diverse and they range  between  white to brown. It is easy to work on travertine as it is very  light.  Travertine is generally used as a coating material on tiles, mouldings,  flooring, pavers, steps, countertops, basins, vanities and fireplaces.  Travertine also can be used  in the coating of floors and walls.  Travertine is generally preferred for outdoor use since it is durable,  easy to apply and abundant to find.

Travertine, Travertine sources in Turkey

Travertine sources in Turkey

With  more than 650 million metric tons, the broadest reserves of different  travertine types are located in Denizli in southwest Turkey. Other  sources of travertine in Turkey are: Antalya, Bursa, Malikoy - Haymana  in Ankara, Eskipazar in Cankiri, Sicak Cermik in Sivas, Adana, Antakya,  Reyhaniye, Nigde (especially boron). 


Onyx  is crystal-like and semi-transparent, which is also known as alabaster.  Onyx has a wide variety of colour selection. Working with Onyx is easy because it is quite light. It is generally used as a coating material. Onyx  is broadly used in tiles of floor and wall, mosaics, moulding, and paver.  Vanities, sinks, showers, bathtubs, basins, countertops and even pools  can be designed with onyx. 

Onyx, Onyx sources in Turkey

Onyx sources in Turkey

Sogut in Bilecik, Mudurnu in Bolu,  Avanos - Avci – Terme in Kirsehir, Akhisar in Manisa, Cermik in Sivas  and Cubuk in Ankara.

Conglomerate and Breccia

The  fragments of marble carried by a stream through long distances would  have round shapes. When these fragments larger than 2 millimetres are  mixed with sand and natural cement, the new mixture is called  conglomerate. After cutting, shaping and polishing, it can be used as a  coating product. 

When  the fragments of marble crushed by tectonic movement of earth are mixed  with chemically precipitated cement, the new material formed is called  breccia. Breccia is known for its vein-like patterns.

Conglomerates and breccias  sources in Turkey

Gulumbe and Sogut  in Bilecik, Orhaneli in Bursa, Harmantepe-Dokurcun in Sakarya (with  colour of grey), Kutluca in Gebze Istanbul (with colour of beige), Haymana  in Ankara (with colour of beige), Iskenderun (with colour of black),  Bozkir in Konya (with colours of brown and red), Toros in Adana (with  colour of beige).

Episode 2: Turkish Stone Industry 

Episode 3: Gemstones of Turkey 

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